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Process Sigma.

Process sigma is a measure of the process performance determined by using DPMO and a stable normal distribution.  Process sigma is a metric that allows for process performance comparisons across processes, departments, divisions, companies and countries, assuming all comparisons are made from stable processes whose output follows the normal distribution.  In Six Sigma terminology, the sigma value of a process is a metric used to indicate the number of defects per million opportunities, or how well the process is performing in respect to customer needs and wants.

The left side of Table 1 is used to translate DPMO statistics for a stable, normally distributed process with no shift in its mean (0.0 shift in mean) over time into a process sigma metric, assuming that defects occur at only one specifications limit. The right side of Table 1 is used to translate DPMO statistics for a stable, normally distributed process that has experienced a 1.5 sigma shift in its mean over time into a process sigma metric.

Six Sigma Dictionary

 
Six Sigma management is replete with jargon. One would think that the sheer volume of jargon in Six Sigma management would kill it, but that doesn’t seem to be the case. In any event, if you want to discuss Six Sigma management you have to know the terminology. The aim of this section is to get you familiar and comfortable with the terms specific to Six Sigma management.  If you decide to begin a Six Sigma journey, you will need a roadmap for getting started. This section presents the terminology required to read the roadmap. The journey is difficult, but worth the effort. People in all sectors of the economy can use this roadmap, for example, people in manufacturing and services industries, as well as people in government and education. If you decide to take this journey, it begins with learning the language of the land. Here we go!

 

Table 1:  Process Sigma – DPMO Table

Assume 0.0 sigma shift in mean

 

Assume 1.5 sigma shift in mean

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

0.10

460,172.1

 

3.30

483.5

 

0.10

919,243.3

 

3.10

54,799.3

0.20

420,740.3

 

3.40

337.0

 

0.20

903,199.5

 

3.20

44,565.4

0.30

382,088.6

 

3.50

232.7

 

0.30

884,930.3

 

3.30

35,930.3

0.40

344,578.3

 

3.60

159.1

 

0.40

864,333.9

 

3.40

28,716.5

0.50

308,537.5

 

3.70

107.8

 

0.50

841,344.7

 

3.50

22,750.1

0.60

274,253.1

 

3.80

72.4

 

0.60

815,939.9

 

3.60

17,864.4

0.70

241,963.6

 

3.90

48.1

 

0.70

788,144.7

 

3.70

13,903.4

0.80

211,855.3

 

4.00

31.7

 

0.80

758,036.4

 

3.80

10,724.1

0.90

184,060.1

 

4.10

20.7

 

0.90

725,746.9

 

3.90

8,197.5

1.00

158,655.3

 

4.20

13.4

 

1.00

691,462.5

 

4.00

6,209.7

1.10

135,666.1

 

4.30

8.5

 

1.10

655,421.7

 

4.10

4,661.2

1.20

115,069.7

 

4.40

5.4

 

1.20

617,911.4

 

4.20

3,467.0

1.30

96,800.5

 

4.50

3.4

 

1.30

579,259.7

 

4.30

2,555.2

1.40

80,756.7

 

4.60

2.1

 

1.40

539,827.9

 

4.40

1,865.9

1.50

66,807.2

 

4.70

1.3

 

1.50

500,000.0

 

4.50

1,350.0

1.60

54,799.3

 

 

1.60

460,172.1

 

4.60

967.7

1.70

44,565.4

 

 

1.70

420,740.3

 

4.70

687.2

1.80

35,930.3

 

 

1.80

382,088.6

 

4.80

483.5

Process σ Level Defect per billion opportunities

1.90

28,716.5

 

 

1.90

344,578.3

 

4.90

337.0

2.00

22,750.1

 

4.80

794.4

 

2.00

308,537.5

 

5.00

232.7

2.10

17,864.4

 

4.90

479.9

 

2.10

274,253.1

 

5.10

159.1

2.20

13,903.4

 

5.00

287.1

 

2.20

241,963.6

 

5.20

107.8

2.30

10,724.1

 

5.10

170.1

 

2.30

211,855.3

 

5.30

72.4

2.40

8,197.5

 

5.20

99.8

 

2.40

184,060.1

 

5.40

48.1

2.50

6,209.7

 

5.30

58.0

 

2.50

158,655.3

 

5.50

31.7

2.60

4,661.2

 

5.40

33.4

 

2.60

135,666.1

 

5.60

20.7

2.70

3,467.0

 

5.50

19.0

 

2.70

115,069.7

 

5.70

13.4

2.80

2,555.2

 

5.60

10.7

 

2.80

96,800.5

 

5.80

8.5

2.90

1,865.9

 

5.70

6.0

 

2.90

80,756.7

 

5.90

5.4

3.00

1,350.0

 

5.80

3.3

 

3.00

66,807.2

 

6.00

3.4

3.10

967.7

 

5.90

1.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.20

687.2

 

6.00

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

For example, suppose a process has 3 independent steps, each with a 95% yield.  The RTY for the process is 85.74% (0.95 X 0.95 X 0.95) and the DPO is 0.1426 (DPO = 1.0 – RTY = 1.0 - 0.8574), assuming each step has only one opportunity so that DPU and DPO are the same. The DPMO for the process is 142,600 (DPMO = DPO X 1,000,000).  The process sigma metric is obtained, assuming a 1.5 sigma shift in the process mean over time, by looking down the DPMO column to the two numbers bracketing to 142,600.  The actual process sigma metric lies between the corresponding two bracketing process sigma metrics.  In this example, 142,600 is bracketed by a DPMO of 135,661 and a DPMO of 158,655.  The corresponding bracketing process sigma metrics are 2.60 and 2.50.  Hence, the actual process sigma metric is approximately 2.55.


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SDSA Model.  The SDSA (Standardize–Do–Study–Act) model is a method or roadmap that helps employees standardize a process. It includes four steps: (1) Standardize: Employees study the process and develop "best practice" methods (e.g., flowcharts) with key indicators of process performance. (2) Do: Employees conduct planned experiments using the best practice methods on a trial basis. (3) Study: Employees collect and analyze data on the key indicators to determine the effectiveness of the best practice methods. (4) Act: Managers establish standardized best practice methods and formalize them through training.

PDSA Model. The PDSA model is a method or roadmap that helps employees improve and innovate a process by reducing the difference between customers' needs and process performance. It consists of four stages: PLAN, DO, STUDY, and ACT.  Initially, a revised flowchart is developed to improve or innovate a standardized best practice method (PLAN). The revised flowchart (PLAN) is tested using an experiment on a small scale or trial basis (DO).  The effects of the revised flowchart are studied using measurements from key indicators (STUDY).  Finally, if the STUDY phase generated positive results, the revised flowchart is inserted into training manuals and all relevant personnel are trained in the revised method (ACT).  If the STUDY phase generated negative results, the revised flowchart is abandoned and a new PLAN is developed by employees.  The PDSA cycle continues forever in an uphill progression of never-ending improvement.

DMAIC Model The DMAIC is the Six Sigma model for improving an existing product, service or process. It has five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. It is an alternative to the PDSA model.

(1) Define phase:  The define phase involves preparing a business case (rationale for the project), understanding the relationships between Suppliers-Inputs-System-Outputs-Customers (called SIPOC analysis), and analyzing Voice of the Customer data to identify the critical to quality (CTQs) characteristics important to customers, and developing a project objective.

(2) Measure phase: The measure phase involves developing operational definitions for each Critical-To-Quality (CTQ) variable, determining the validity of the measurement system for each CTQ, and establishing baseline capabilities for each CTQ.

(3) Analyze phase: The analyze phase involves identifying the upstream variables (Xs) for each CTQ using a flowchart.  Upstream variables are the factors that affect the performance of a CTQ.  To restate this quantitatively:

CTQ = f (X1, X2, X3, …, Xk), where

CTQ = the critical-to-quality characteristic important to customers identified in the define phase and clarified in the measure phase of the DMAIC model.

Xi = upstream ith variable that is hypothesized to have an impact of the performance of the CTQ.

Additionally, the analyze phase involves operationally defining each X, collecting baseline data for each X, performing studies to determine the validity of the measurement system for each X, establishing baseline capabilities for each X, and understanding the effect of each X on each CTQ.

(4) Improve phase: The improve phase involves designing experiments to understand the relationships between the CTQs and the Xs, determining the levels of the critical Xs that optimize the CTQs, developing action plans to formalize the level of the Xs that optimize the CTQs, and conducting a pilot test of the revised system.

(5) Control phase: The control phase involves avoiding potential problems with the Xs with risk management and mistake proofing, standardizing successful system revisions, controlling the critical Xs, documenting each control plan, and turning the revised system over to the system owner.  Risk management involves developing a plan to minimize the risk of increasing variation in cycle time.  Mistake proofing involves installing systems/methods that have a low probability of producing errors.


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CTQ. CTQ is an acronym for Critical-to-Quality characteristic for a product, service or process. A CTQ is a measure of what is important to a customer, for example, average and variation in waiting time in a physician’s office for a sample of 4 patients by day, percentage of errors with ATM transactions for a bank’s customers per month, or number of car accidents per month on a particular stretch of highway for a Department of Traffic.

Unit. A unit is the item (e.g., product or component, service or service step, or time period) to be studied with a Six Sigma project.

Defective. A non-conforming unit is a defective unit.

Defect. A defect is a non-conformance on one, of many possible, quality characteristics of a unit that causes customer dissatisfaction.  For a given unit, each quality characteristic is defined by translating customer desires into specifications. It is important to operationally define each defect for a unit. For example, if a word in a document is misspelled, that word may be considered a defect.  A defect does not necessarily make a unit defective.  For example, a water bottle can have a scratch on the outside (defect) and still be used to hold water (not defective). However, if a customer wants a scratch-free water bottle, that scratched bottle could be considered defective.

Defect Opportunity. A defect opportunity is each circumstance in which a CTQ can fail to be met. There may be many opportunities for defects within a defined unit. For instance, a service may have four component parts. If each component part contains three opportunities for a defect, then the service has 12 defect opportunities in which a CTQ can fail to be met.  The number of defect opportunities generally is related to the complexity of the unit under study. Complex units experience greater opportunities for defects to occur than simple units.

Defects per Unit (DPU). Defects per unit refers to the average of all the defects for a given number of units, that is, the total number of defects for n units divided by n, the number of units.  If you are producing a 50-page document, the unit is a page.  If there are 150 spelling errors, DPU is 150/50 or 3.0. If you are producing ten 50-page documents, the unit is a 50 page document. If there are 75 spelling errors in all ten documents, DPU is 75/10 or 7.5.

Defects per Opportunity (DPO). Defects per opportunity refers to the number of defects divided by the number of defect opportunities. If there are 20 errors in 100 services with 1 defect opportunity per service, the DPU is 0.20 (20/100). However, if there are 12 defect opportunities per service, there would be 1,200 opportunities in 100 services. In this case, DPO would be 0.0167 (or, 20/1,200). (DPO may also be calculated by dividing DPU by the total number of opportunities.)

Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO). DPMO equals DPO multiplied by one million. Hence, for the above example the DPMO is (0.0167) x (1,000,000), or 16,700 defects per million opportunities.

Yield. Yield is the proportion of units within specification divided by the total number of units, that is, if 25 units are produced and 20 are good, then the yield is 0.80 (20/25).

Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY). Rolled Throughput Yield is the product of the yields from each step in a process.  It is the probability of a unit passing through all “k” steps of a process and incurring no defects.  RTY = Y1 * Y2 … YK, where k=number of steps in a process, or the number of component parts or steps in a product or service. Each yield Y for each step or component must be calculated to compute the RTY. For example, if a process has three steps and the yield from the first step (Y1) is 99.7%, the yield from the second step (Y2) is 99.5% and the yield from the third step (Y3) is 89.7%, then the rolled throughput yield (RTY) is 88.98% (0.997 X 0.995 X 0.897). 

 


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Process Sigma. Process sigma is a measure of the process performance determined by using DPMO and a stable normal distribution.  Process sigma is a metric that allows for process performance comparisons across processes, departments, divisions, companies and countries, assuming all comparisons are made from stable processes whose output follows the normal distribution.  In Six Sigma terminology, the sigma value of a process is a metric used to indicate the number of defects per million opportunities, or how well the process is performing in respect to customer needs and wants.

The left side of Table 1 is used to translate DPMO statistics for a stable, normally distributed process with no shift in its mean (0.0 shift in mean) over time into a process sigma metric, assuming that defects occur at only one of the specifications if there are lower and upper specifications. The right side of Table 2 is used to translate DPMO statistics for a stable, normally distributed process that has experienced a 1.5 sigma shift in its mean over time into a process sigma metric.

Table 1:  Process Sigma – DPMO Table

Assume 0.0 sigma shift in mean

 

Assume 1.5 sigma shift in mean

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

 

Process σ Level

Process DPMO

0.10

460,172.1

 

3.30

483.5

 

0.10

919,243.3

 

3.10

54,799.3

0.20

420,740.3

 

3.40

337.0

 

0.20

903,199.5

 

3.20

44,565.4

0.30

382,088.6

 

3.50

232.7

 

0.30

884,930.3

 

3.30

35,930.3

0.40

344,578.3

 

3.60

159.1

 

0.40

864,333.9

 

3.40

28,716.5

0.50

308,537.5

 

3.70

107.8

 

0.50

841,344.7

 

3.50

22,750.1

0.60

274,253.1

 

3.80

72.4

 

0.60

815,939.9

 

3.60

17,864.4

0.70

241,963.6

 

3.90

48.1

 

0.70

788,144.7

 

3.70

13,903.4

0.80

211,855.3

 

4.00

31.7

 

0.80

758,036.4

 

3.80

10,724.1

0.90

184,060.1

 

4.10

20.7

 

0.90

725,746.9

 

3.90

8,197.5

1.00

158,655.3

 

4.20

13.4

 

1.00

691,462.5

 

4.00

6,209.7

1.10

135,666.1

 

4.30

8.5

 

1.10

655,421.7

 

4.10

4,661.2

1.20

115,069.7

 

4.40

5.4

 

1.20

617,911.4

 

4.20

3,467.0

1.30

96,800.5

 

4.50

3.4

 

1.30

579,259.7

 

4.30

2,555.2

1.40

80,756.7

 

4.60

2.1

 

1.40

539,827.9

 

4.40

1,865.9

1.50

66,807.2

 

4.70

1.3

 

1.50

500,000.0

 

4.50

1,350.0

1.60

54,799.3

 

 

 

 

1.60

460,172.1

 

4.60

967.7

1.70

44,565.4

 

Process σ Level

Defect per billion opportunities

 

1.70

420,740.3

 

4.70

687.2

1.80

35,930.3

 

 

1.80

382,088.6

 

4.80

483.5

1.90

28,716.5

 

 

1.90

344,578.3

 

4.90

337.0

2.00

22,750.1

 

4.80

794.4

 

2.00

308,537.5

 

5.00

232.7

2.10

17,864.4

 

4.90

479.9

 

2.10

274,253.1

 

5.10

159.1

2.20

13,903.4

 

5.00

287.1

 

2.20

241,963.6

 

5.20

107.8

2.30

10,724.1

 

5.10

170.1

 

2.30

211,855.3

 

5.30

72.4

2.40

8,197.5

 

5.20

99.8

 

2.40

184,060.1

 

5.40

48.1

2.50

6,209.7

 

5.30

58.0

 

2.50

158,655.3

 

5.50

31.7

2.60

4,661.2

 

5.40

33.4

 

2.60

135,666.1

 

5.60

20.7

2.70

3,467.0

 

5.50

19.0

 

2.70

115,069.7

 

5.70

13.4

2.80

2,555.2

 

5.60

10.7

 

2.80

96,800.5

 

5.80

8.5

2.90

1,865.9

 

5.70

6.0

 

2.90

80,756.7

 

5.90

5.4

3.00

1,350.0

 

5.80

3.3

 

3.00

66,807.2

 

6.00

3.4

3.10

967.7

 

5.90

1.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.20

687.2

 

6.00

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

For example, suppose a process has 3 independent steps, each with a 95% yield.  The RTY for the process is 85.74% (0.95 X 0.95 X 0.95) and the DPO is 0.1426 (DPO = 1.0 – RTY = 1.0 - 0.8574), assuming each step has only one opportunity so that DPU and DPO are the same. The DPMO for the process is 142,600 (DPMO = DPO X 1,000,000).  The process sigma metric is obtained, assuming a 1.5 sigma shift in the process mean over time, by looking down the DPMO column to the two numbers bracketing to 142,600.  The actual process sigma metric lies between the corresponding two bracketing process sigma metrics.  In this example, 142,600 is bracketed by a DPMO of 135,661 and a DPMO of 158,655.  The corresponding bracketing process sigma metrics are 2.60 and 2.50.  Hence, the actual process sigma metric is approximately 2.55.


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DMADV Model. The DMADV model is the Six Sigma model for creating major new features of existing products, services, or processes, or creating entirely new products, services, or processes.The phases of the DMADV model are Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.

(1) Define Phase.  The Define Phase of the DMADV model has five components:  establishing the background and business case; assessing the risks and benefits of the project; forming the DMADV project team; developing the project plan; and writing the project objective.

(2) Measure Phase. The Measure Phase of a Design for Six Sigma project has three steps: segmenting the market; designing and conducting a Kano Survey; and, using the Kano survey results as Quality Function Deployment inputs to find Critical to Quality Characteristics (CTQs).

(3) Analyze Phase. The Analyze Phase contains four steps: design generation; design analysis; risk analysis; and design model.  The aim of these four steps in the Analyze Phase is to develop high level designs.  In addition to this, the designs will be evaluated per risk assessments.  Finally, nominal values are established for all CTQs in the Analyze Phase for the “best” design.

(4) Design Phase. The Design Phase of a Design for Six Sigma project has three steps: constructing a detailed design of the “best” design from the Analyze Phase; developing and estimating the capabilities of the Critical to Process elements (CTPs) in the design; and preparing a verification plan to enable a smooth transition among all affected departments.

(5) Verify/Validate Phase. The intent of the Verify/Validate Phase is to facilitate buy-in of process owners; to design a control and transition plan; and to conclude the DMADV project. 


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Roles and reponsibilities in Six Sigma management
There are several jobs in an organization that are critical to the Six Sigma management process.  They are senior executive (C.E.O. or president), executive committee, champion, master black belt, black belt, green belt, and process owner.  The roles and responsibilities of each of the above jobs are described as follows.

Senior Executive. The senior executive provides the impetus, direction and alignment necessary for Six Sigma’s ultimate success. The senior executive should:

  • Study Six Sigma management.

  • Lead the Executive Committee in linking strategies to Six Sigma projects.

  • Participate on appropriate Six Sigma project teams.

  • Maintain an overview of the system to avoid sub-optimization.

  • Maintain a long-term view.

  • Act as a liaison to Wall Street, explaining the long-term advantages of Six Sigma management, if appropriate.

  • Constantly and consistently, publicly and privately, champion Six Sigma management.

  • Conduct project reviews.

The most successful, highly-publicized Six Sigma efforts have had one thing in common -- unwavering, clear and committed leadership from top management. There is no doubt in anyone’s mind that Six Sigma is “the way we do business.” Although it may be possible to initiate Six Sigma concepts and processes at lower levels, dramatic success will not be possible until the senior executive becomes engaged and takes a leadership role.

Executive Committee. The members of the Executive Committee are the top management of an organization.  They should operate at the same level of commitment for Six Sigma management as the Senior Executive.  The members of the Executive Committee should:

  • Study Six Sigma management.

  • Deploy Six Sigma throughout the organization.

  • Prioritize and manage the Six Sigma project portfolio.

  • Assign champions, black belts and green belts to Six Sigma projects.

  • Conduct reviews of Six Sigma projects with the senior executive, and within their own areas of control.

  • Improve the Six Sigma process.

  • Remove barriers to Six Sigma management or projects.

Provide resources for the Six Sigma management process and projects.


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Champion. A Champion takes a very active sponsorship and leadership role in conducting and implementing Six Sigma projects. A Champion should be a member of the Executive Committee, or at least a trusted direct report of a member of the Executive Committee. She or he should have enough influence to remove obstacles or provide resources without having to go higher in the organization. They work closely with the executive committee, the project leader (called a black belt) assigned to their project, and the master black belt (supervisor of black belts) overseeing their project.  Champions have the following responsibilities:

  • Identify their project on the organizational dashboard.

  • Develop and negotiate project objectives and charters with the executive committee.

  • Select a black belt (or a green belt for a simple project) to lead the project team.

  • Remove any political barriers or resource constraints to their Six Sigma project (run interference).

  • Provide an ongoing communication link between their project team(s) and the executive committee.

  • Help team members manage their resources and stay within the budget.

  • Review the progress of their project in respect to the project’s timetable.

  • Keep the team focused on the project by providing direction and guidance.

Assure that Six Sigma methods and tools are being used in the project.

Master Black Belt. A master black belt takes on a leadership role as keeper of the Six Sigma process, advisor to executives or business unit managers, and leverages, his/her skills with projects that are led by black belts and green belts. Frequently, master black belts report directly to senior executives or business unit managers. A master black belt has successfully led at least ten teams through complex Six Sigma projects.  He or she is a proven change agent, leader, facilitator, and technical expert in Six Sigma management.  Master black belt is a career path. It is always best for an organization to grow their own master black belts. Unfortunately, sometimes it is impossible for an organization to grow its own master black belts due to the lead time required to become a master black belt. It takes years of study, practice, tutelage under a master, and project work. Ideally, master black belts are selected from the black belts within an organization.

          Master black belts have the following responsibilities:

  • Counsel senior executives and business unit managers on Six Sigma management.

  • Help identify and prioritize key project areas in keeping with strategic initiatives

  • Continually improve and innovate the organization’s Six Sigma process.

  • Apply Six Sigma across both operations and transactions-based processes such as Sales, HR, IT, Facility Management, Call Centers, Finance, etc.

  • Coordinate Six Sigma projects from the dashboard.

  • Teach black belts and green belts Six Sigma theory, tools, and methods.

  • Mentor black belts and green belts.

Senior master black belts have 10 years of ongoing leadership experience and have worked extensively with mentoring the organizational leaders on Six Sigma management.


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Black Belt. A black belt is a full-time change agent and improvement leader who may not be an expert in the process under study. The ideal candidate for a black belt is an individual who posses the following characteristics:

  • Has technical and managerial process improvement / innovation skills.

  • Has a passion for Statistics and Systems Theory.

  • Understands the psychology of individuals and teams.

  • Understands the PDSA cycle and learning.

  • Has excellent communication and writing skills.

  • Works well in a team format.

  • Can manage meetings.

  • Has a pleasant personality and is fun to work with.

  • Communicates in the language of the client and does not use technical jargon.

  • Is not intimidated by upper management.

  • Has a customer focus.

The responsibilities of a black belt include:

  • Help to prepare a project charter.

  • Communicate with the champion and process owner about progress of the project.

  • Lead the project team.

  • Schedule meetings and coordinate logistics.

  • Help team members design experiments and analyze the data required for the project.

  • Provide training in tools and team functions to project team members.

  • Help team members prepare for reviews by the champion and executive committee.

  • Recommend additional Six Sigma projects.

  • Lead and coach Green Belts leading projects limited in scope.

A black belt is a full-time quality professional who is mentored by a master black belt, but may report to a manager, for his or her tour of duty as a black belt. An appropriate time frame for a tour of duty as a full-time black belt is 2 years. Black belt skills and project work are critical to the development of leaders and high potential people within the organization. 



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Green Belt. A green belt is an individual who works on projects part-time (25%), either as a team member for complex projects, or as a project leader for simpler projects. Green belts are the “work horses” of Six Sigma projects. Most managers in a mature Six Sigma organization are green belts.  Green Belt certification is a critical prerequisite for advancement into upper management in a Six Sigma organization. Green belts leading simpler projects have the following responsibilities:

  • Refine a project charter.

  • Review the project charter with the project’s champion.

  • Select the team members for the project.

  • Communicates with the champion, master black belt, black belt and process owner throughout all stages of the project.

  • Facilitate the team through all phases of the project.

  • Schedule meetings and coordinate logistics.

  • Analyze data through all phases of the project

  • Train team members in the basic tools and methods through all phases of the project.

In complicated Six Sigma projects, green belts work closely with the team leader (black belt) to keep the team functioning and progressing through the various stages of the Six Sigma project.

Process Owner. A process owner is the manager of a process. She or he has responsibility for the process and has the authority to change the process on his or her signature.  The process owner should be identified and involved immediately in all Six Sigma projects relating to his or her area. A process owner has the following responsibilities:

  • Accountable for the monitoring, managing, and output of his or her process.

  • Empower the employees who work in the process to follow and improve  best practice methods.

  • Focus the project team on the project charter.

  • Assist the project team in remaining on schedule.

  • Allocate the resources necessary for the project (people, space, etc.).

  • Accept, manage and sustain the improved process after completion of the Six Sigma project.

  • Ensure that process objectives and indicators are linked to the organization’s mission through the dashboard.

Understand how the process works, the capability of the process, and the relationship of the process to other processes in the organization.


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